The traditional schools of learning in India suffered under the impact of colonial expansion. For one, the political tumult under the British regime could hardly foster concern on intellectual pursuits and secondly, the public endow­ments to these schools were not forthcoming any more. But later, pleas to promote learning by the Indian officers of the Company and others finally bore fruit. Warren Hastings set up the Calcutta Madrasa in 1781 to promote Persian and Arabic studies. A Sanskrit college was established at Banaras in 1791. The Christian missionaries were also eager to spread education through English in order to teach western literature and preach Christianity. Lord Wellesley set up the Fort William College in 1800 to train the Company’s civil servants. The college was, however, closed two years later.

THE 1813 ACT AND EDUCATION The English missionary activists, such as Charles Grant and William ORIENTALISTS V S. ANGLIOSTS Wilberforce, compelled the East India Company to give up its policy of non-intervention in ~ducation. For the first time, the British Parliament included in 1813 Charter ,a clause under which the Governor-General-in -Council was bound to keep a sum not less than one lakh rupees, for education. However, the Company used this fund for promoting Indian language and literature. The Charter allowed the Christian missionaries to spread their religious ideas in India. The greatest importance of the 1813 Act was that the Company for the first time acknowledged state responsibility for promotion of education in India.